In a typical therapeutic regimen the drug dose and the dosing interval are optimized to maintain drug concentration within the therapeutic window, thus ensuring efficacy while minimizing toxic effects. For many decades treatment of acute disease or a chronic illness has been mostly accomplished by delivery of drugs to patients using various pharmaceutical dosage forms. The immediate release conventional dosage form does not provide the proper plasma concentration of drug for prolonged period. This results in the development of various controlled drug delivery system. Among which the osmotic drug delivery systems (ODDS) are gaining importance as these systems deliver the drug at specific time as per the path physiological need of the disease, resulting in improved patient therapeutic efficacy and compliance. They work on the principle of osmotic pressure for controlling the delivery of the drug. Osmotic drug delivery systems with their versatility and their highly predictable drug release rates offer various biomedical advantages when given parenterally like reduced dose, targeting of site, avoiding gastrointestinal stability, hepatic bypass of drug molecule and follows zero order kinetics. Osmosis is an aristocratic phenomenon that seizes the attention for its exploitation in zero-order drug delivery systems. The release of the drug is independent of pH and physiological factors of the GIT to a large extent. Optimizing semi-permeable membrane characteristics and osmotic agent can modulate delivery of drug from the system. This review highlights the theoretical concept of drug delivery, history, types of oral osmotic drug delivery systems, factors affecting the drug delivery system, advantages and disadvantages of this delivery system, theoretical aspects, applications, and the marketed status.