States also have used federal assistance to avert spending cuts. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, enacted in February 2009, gave states roughly $140 billion over a two-and-a-half year period to help fund ongoing programs, including enhanced funding for Medicaid and funding for K-12 and higher education. In August 2010, the federal government provided states an additional six months of enhanced Medicaid funding and an additional $10 billion in education funding. In state after state, it is abundantly clear that spending and service cuts in health care, education, human services, public safety, and other areas would have been much deeper had the federal funds not been available.  As noted above, however, federal fiscal relief will be largely exhausted by the end of states’ 2011 fiscal year, even though states are projecting substantial budget gaps for fiscal year 2012 and beyond. If the federal aid expires before state budgets have recovered, states will lose a critical tool for avoiding pro-cyclical actions such as budget cuts and tax increases that could slow the economic recovery even further. 
What are they? According to this explanation on the Education Department website, the money is meant to be spent for these reasons:
1) To provide all students with access to a well-rounded education
2) Improve school conditions for student learning
3) Improve the use of technology in order to improve the academic achievement and digital literacy of all students.
The programs include mental-health services, anti-bullying initiatives, physical education, Advanced Placement courses and science and engineering instruction. Congress created the fund, which totals $400 million this fiscal year, by rolling together several smaller programs.
To help with public perception and to raise awareness regarding the widespread benefits of NASA-funded programs and technologies, NASA instituted the Spinoffs publication. This was a direct offshoot of the Technology Utilization Program Report, a "publication dedicated to informing the scientific community about available NASA technologies, and ongoing requests received for supporting information." according to the NASA Spinoff about page the technologies in these reports created interest in the technology transfer concept, its successes, and its use as a public awareness tool. The reports generated such keen interest by the public that NASA decided to make them into an attractive publication. Thus, the first four-color edition of Spinoff was published in 1976.